Card 04.07 Internal and external traffic



  • Running over (vehicles transit in promiscuous zones)
  • Bumping and crushing
  • Vehicle accidents (for bumping into facilities and materials and inadequate maintenance)
  • Overturning (speeding or driving mistakes)


It is necessary to remind that:
Farm machines ­ except some dragged ones (harrow, plough and sower) - shall be provided with road worthiness certificate, that is a vehicle registration document to be given circulation.
In order to receive these documents, machines shall be tested in advance (usually by the builder) to meet specific requirements provided for the law:
- Requirements of the New Highway Code: bulk limit,overall height, front, rear and lateral length and width (even those cantilevered) and towed bulk.
- Adequate signals indicating cantilevered over alls shall be positioned in dragged or half-dragged operating machines or in vehicles considered ""exceptional".




The driver shall keep the eyes on the road.


The driver shall not go beyond the maximum speed limit.


The driver shall take note of road signs and follow their indications.


The driver shall not transit on surfaces without knowing their capacity (garrets, foot boards, wood floor, platforms etc).


The driver shall always keep to the left any other vehicles running in the same direction.


The driver shall not overtake on a bend, narrow passages, crossroads and in case of poor visibility.


The driver shall not run side by side with other vehicles.


The driver shall give way to vehicles coming from right.


The driver shall use low gear in hazardous stretch of road.


The driver shall slow down: at crossroads, bends (especially sightless ones), premises' entry, railway crossings, pedestrian crossings, along ramps or platforms, wet floors (or slippery ones) and when the road is rough and full of subsidence (holes, obstacles or steep slopes). In these moments the driver shall be ready to stop in a few room. Driver shall compensate for other people's distraction with prudence.


The driver shall reduce velocity while crossing any railway to avoid violent jerks.


The driver shall check the green light of passages while travelling with extraordinary equipment or loads, high or bulky.


The driver shall use sound signal:

  • every time the vehicle is approaching to doorways, blind spots and crossroads;
  • to warn pedestrians on their way to give them time to step.


The driver shall avoid sharp start, brake or swerve: inertia force of the loaded equipment may be source of instability.


While in warehouse or in closed environment, the driver shall try to follow the centre of the passage to minimize the chance of hitting people or vehicles which may suddenly appear.


In case of front visibility lack (e.g. tractor provided with front fork-lift for round-bales), the driver shall reverse, looking in the running direction and moving at low speed.


Transport with lack of front visibility are authorized only if guided by pedestrian who supply the driver with precise information on the path.


The driver shall park in a proper way. Even in brief lay-ups he/she shall not stop the tractor next to:

  • emergency exits;
  • work or transit places;
  • sloping roads;
  • doors,blind spot sand bends;
  • dark places,behind obstacles;
  • in front of elevators etc.


While parking the tractor the driver shall:

  • lower the hydraulic lift;
  • stall the engine;
  • remove the key or the staring plug;
  • apply the parking brake.


At the end of the work it is necessary to:

  • leave the vehicle in it sparking;
  • check for any oil leak;
  • follow all the parking indication listed above.


It is necessary to respect norms concerning: speed limit, people transport, carriage transport (fuels, parasiticide products and agricultural material) and use of visible signal devices.


Flashing indicator shall be used every time a vehicle circulates with different overalls and bulks from those indicated in the road worthiness certificate (e.g. dragged or half-dragged equipment) or in exceptional conditions, such as bulk or shape overcoming. Written authorizations are needed from the bodies that own the road in which the vehicle will circulate (province ­ ANAS).


Self-propelling agricultural machines which circulate on roads must have a specific RC insurance cover, whereas trailers shall have a policy under road lay-up.


Requisites and driving competence permitted by the driving licence shall be respected: every kind of agricultural machine is included in the B category (even for self-propelling combined harvester).


Most of the accidents occur during machines' movement inside the farm. An efficient road system in the farm guarantees safe circulation and helps preventing accidents which may involve people, animals and other vehicles and damage facilities.


To improve the road system in the farm it is necessary to adopt the following tactics:

  • l internal roads shall be provided with road signs (stop, yield, attention, speed limit etc);
  • distinguish vehicle transit areas from pedestrian and depot ones using signals or other visual indications;
  • in cir cum scribed areas, such as courtyards, provide enough room for machines' manoeuvres which allows U-turn without reversing;
  • worker shall pay attention to manoeuvre operations in the farm centre, especially with poor visibility;
  • during circulation of operating machines provide their sharp or pointed parts with protections;
  • during circulation of machines with overall height, worker shall watch out for risk of coming into contact with power lines (danger must be signalled with pictogram s on the equipment and, were it possible, with signals next to power lines);
  • during manoeuvres ban out sliders' presence nearby vehicles;
  • were it possible, remove or clearly signal overalls (prominent roots and cement or brick building), ditches, holes and water tank which obstacles the road practicability or are next to the road and the headland access path.


As for the access from the farm into the public road, it is necessary to remember that road accident risk between firm vehicles and private ones is considerable.


Therefore, it is necessary to follow the Highway Code on the access subject (authorizations, characteristics etc) and it is advisable to:

  • place spherical mirrors near access on bends with poor visibility;
  • create as lip road in access on public heavy traffic road to facilitate and make entrance and exit operations safer;
  • access shall be wide enough to give a vehicle, exiting from the farm, the possibility to turn right without entering the opposite lane.


Before starting a transport or a transfer on a public or farm road, it is necessary to check:

  • if brake pedals are locked to get her by a proper gudgeon pin;
  • if the roads the vehicle is a bout to go along are accessible to agricultural vehicles (some roads are forbidden).



  • Worker shall wear P.P.E., such as thermal wear when it is required, safety earmuffs, safety shoes etc.
  • Worker shall avoid any distraction.
  • Operator shall fasten his/her attention on work.
  • Operator shall be prudent and judicious: worker's distraction or transgression to norms may harm the operator him/herself and/or other people, and cause danger to vehicles and things.
  • It is necessary to be aware of one's self responsibilities.
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