Card 05.08 Fork-lift trucks

 

THE RISK:

  • Running down people (due to wrong manoeuvres; poor visibility; pedestrian disturbance and accidental control activation)
  • Crushing (due to balance loss; overturning or turnover of the fork-lift truck during connecting operations; load falling on the operator or on people in the truck and stackable materials manoeuvre area; load jerks; machine instability due to high speed on bend and exit from the slides of the moving lifting truck behind the stroke limiter)
  • Touching transmission moving parts (entangling in rotating parts: catenaries and tooth pinion)
  • Contact, cut and shearing (between the lifting fixed pier and moving one)
  • Liquid projection under pressure (failure in the pressurisation hydraulic system)
  • Operator’s fall (while climbing into or getting off from driver’s seat)
  • Toxic gas from exhausting pipes (due to the use of diesel lifting truck in closed/contiguous environments)
  • Hearing damages (high noise level)
  • Back and internal organs damages (daily use of the machine; vibration’s level higher than the authorized one and prolonged sitting position)
  • Fire/explosion (during topping up or battery recharging)

 

PRACTICAL AND OPERATING INDICATIONS:

 

It is advisable to operate carefully and without hurry during manoeuvres and load lifting and lowering.

 

It is forbidden to load the machine over the authorized limit and respect load disposition.

 

It is advisable to keep safe running speed, especially in slopes and bends, and avoid sharp braking.

 

It is necessary to check ground for unevenness and ruggedness.

 

It is necessary to check periodically tyre pressure.

 

In case of towed fork-lifter, when the lifter is separated from the tractor, it is advisable to check if:

  • the ground is firm and not soft;
  • supports are firmly positioned;
  • the unevenness of the ground will not cause bumps and lifter consequent overturning.

 

If, in case of towed fork-lifter, during connecting and assembly operations (of various parts of the lifter-tractor system), help from a second operator is needed, he/she must keep away from the dangerous zone: not in front of the lifter nor near the tractor wheel, but in lateral position and he/she must always be visible to the driver.

 

After the insertion of the linking gudgeons, it is necessary to check the intervention and the insertion of the safety pin.

 

In case of automatic linking system, it is necessary to check the insertion of the linking gudgeons by light warning signal or other signalling systems.

 

It is necessary to assure the tractor absolute stop activating the handbrake.

 

It is compulsory to check the presence of a structure capable to resist any load rollover on the driver’s seat (Front-guard) and of the operator’s protection by Rops - Fops means. In case of towed fork-lifter, load rollover may happen due to third point break if constantly stressed (overload or wear and tear).

 

It is necessary to carry out machine maintenance periodically to prevent sudden decrease of hydraulic pressure due to hose brake and power decrease (it may provoke load fall).

 

It is necessary to carefully arrange stacked materials (loads piled up may fall and running down the operator or the nearby staff).

 

It is advisable to check if the lifting truck is provided with stroke limiter on the lifter, in order to avoid that the lifter itself exits for any reason from the slides in case of maximum extension.

 

It is necessary to check if moving parts are provided with adequate protections.

 

It is compulsory to always check pipelines and hydraulic joints which, in case of wear and tear, may explode and project high temperature liquid spillage provoking scalds. Disconnected pipes shall be placed on proper supports.

 

It is necessary to assure an adequate ventilation if the work is carried out in closed environments in presence of exhausting fumes (constant use of diesel trucks in closed areas may cause operator’s intoxication).

 

In case of electric fork-lifter the operator shall be extremely careful while topping up operations or battery recharging:

  • use DPI (gloves, goggles and respirator);
  • read carefully the user’s manual for preventing acids contact and battery explosion risk.

 

FURTHER INDICATIONS AND ADVICE

  • It is necessary to check compatibility with tractors and respect predefined loads.
  • Separating operations shall be performed on flat land with firm ground, easy to enter and away from other vehicles’ transit.
  • It is necessary to check the lifter bearings maintenance (when it is separated from the tractor) and put them in upright position, adjusting their height, during parking phase.
  • It is advisable to always check the load weight and its nature, fixing and transport procedures and the machine steadiness according to ground conditions.
  • It is advisable to appraise necessary manoeuvre rooms, spot any obstacle on vehicle’s way and check visibility conditions.
  • Staff shall attend specific training courses for operators and fork-lift drivers on: behavioural norms before starting the work, ways of loading and battery recharging safety norms.
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Plate indicating the characteristics of the fork-lifter

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Parts connecting to the tractor

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Operator’s protection against load fall

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Round bales wrong stacked

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Moving lifting truck without stroke limiter

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Moving parts protection grid

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