Card 07.02 Cattle breeding



  1. Bio hazard (zoonosis due to bovine brucellosis, tuberculosis, ringworm, scabies and tetanus)
  2. Chemical hazard (due to operator coming into direct/indirect contact with chemical products)
  3. Trauma and injuries risk (due to aggressions by animals, fall for various reasons and accidents caused by tools and equipment)
  4. Intoxication (due to inhalation of both dry food preparation and distribution phase, and in animals and rooms cleaning for use of disinfectant and/or disinfesting)
  5. Muscles, back and articulations injuries (due to manual load transport and uncomfortable and prolonged positions)


It is necessary to remind that:
An appropriate facility designing and a strict observance of measures countering the zoonosis risk are the fundamental for accident prevention in a breeding. This protection is augmented by new general tendencies towards "animal wellness" which seek more rational breeding conditions, giving indirect benefits on safety places exploitation even to operators.




Preventing zoonosis measures are intended to:

  • guarantee scrupulous hygiene of stockyards and adopt rigorously proper animal prophylaxis procedures
  • guarantee hygiene measures adoption by workers even by the use of P.P.E. and the follow of adequate safety procedures;
  • undergo the compulsory prophylaxis vaccination;
  • report any symptoms; in suspicious cases, operators shall go and see the doctor; and
  • periodically ascertain animal's health.


In case of drugs, disinfectants and detergents manipulation:

  • the operator shall always use gloves, overalls and half-mask respirator;
  • the operator shall always wash thoroughly his/her hands and any body part which accidentally came into contact with toxic products;
  • the operator shall not leave unattended remaining products or open packing; and
  • the operator shall not transfer remains in packing not immediately recognizable.


Sheds shall be provided with emergency walkways (manhole) 30-35 cm wide to help operator's escape from animal's areas if attacked by them.


It is advisable to avoid ringers of mobiles, they may irritate animals.


Operator shall not get too close to animals and avoid shouting.


Operator shall use the proper halter to move an animal in non-fenced areas.


No entry notices and suitable barriers shall be placed to avoid the entrance of non-experts and motor vehicles.


In case continuous personnel presence is not guaranteed, sheds shall be provided with adequate lock (padlocks and chains).


Rooms, transit ways, vehicles and walkways shall always be kept clean and free from animal droppings.


Rooms shall have:

  • water proof floors, easy to clean and disinfect to help water evacuation;
  • an adequate ventilation and natural/artificial illumination systems.


At shed's entrance shall be set load/unload material and animal areas with washable and disinfectable floors.


It is necessary to constantly clean 1 m surface all along the external length of the shed.


The protection of working material storage areas shall be guaranteed.


At the entrance of the farm a filter zone shall be provided and it shall be complete of locker room, wash-basin and cleanser.


Facilities shall be provided with suitable cold chambers for dead animals. It is necessary to make sure the loading operations of these animals are carried out outside the breeding areas and the withdrawal must be made by authorized firms.


Dead animals shall be sent to authorized factories, according to current regulations, complete with vet certifications.


Operator shall always use the following P.P.E.:

  • gloves;
  • anti-skid shoes/boots;
  • overall;
  • respirators/face protection;
  • goggles/eyes protection.


The livestock housing shall be provided with a division between the filthy and the clean zone, inside the same stockyard or loose box.


In livestock housing, the operator shall be facilitated with metallic grid floors and tanks below for collection and vehiculation of droppings to avoid their stagnations.


It is necessary to reduce manual load within sensible limits: 25 kg for men and 15 kg for women.


Operator shall manually transport anything but small new-born animals and small containers. If manual transportation demands considerable effort to operators (e.g. food transport during preparing or distributing phase and transport of injured or dead heavy animals) workers shall carry out these tasks in two or with mechanical vehicles (fork-lift truck, transpallets and wheelbarrows).


Fixed systems shall be projected to integrate with facilities in which they will be introduced and shall be validated by the installer.



  • Stockyards shall be adequately illuminated and ventilated.
  • Operator shall follow scrupulously animals prophylaxis and hygiene to avoid contagious disease (serological examinations, vaccinations etc).
  • It is necessary to avoid stockyard overcrowding.
  • It is advisable to periodically disinfest and exterminate rats from the facilities preventing feed contamination.
  • Stockyard hygiene shall be scrupulous and animal droppings and food waste disposal shall be prompt.
  • It is compulsory to regularly check animals according to the breeding system and guarantee the inspection is carried out with suitable illumination (working tools and equipment shall always be disinfected).
  • Adequate ventilation shall be guaranteed.
  • The floor shall be even to avoid any accident; if possible the stockyard floor shall be grilled to guarantee immediate droppings disposal.
  • It is necessary to form and inform operators about bio hazard.
  • It is necessary to cooperate with the National Veterinary Service for prevention.


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